Study finds underutilization of warfarin among Kentucky women with AF

June 07, 2017

Validation of a Novel Bioluminescent Mouse Model of Sezary Syndrome for Preclinical Drug Screening Poster Abstract 2725: Sunday, December 11, 2011, 6:00PMAuthors: Salvia Jain, MD and Owen A. O'Connor, MD, PhD, NYU Cancer InstituteSezary syndrome (SS) is an aggressive leukemic form of cutaneous T cell lymphoma (CTCL) and is generally considered incurable. Until now no true animal model for SS exists which could be used for the screening of novel compounds against the disease. We successfully developed a bioluminescent xenograft mouse model for SS to noninvasively monitor tumor cell engraftment and progression and to measure the effects of treatments on tumor burden. This novel bioluminescent xenograft mouse model of SS enables non-invasive, sensitive, quantitative evaluation of disease progression in living animals and evaluation of pharmacologic factors in real time. We are able to detect and monitor lymphoma cell growth before the presentation of clinical manifestations. Further this model recapitulates our understanding of behavior of drugs used in the treatment of lymphomas such as pralatrexate which has a rapid onset of action compared to romidepsin that has a delayed time to onset of activity. This represents the first bioluminescent animal model of human CTCL that is intended to be used to investigate novel treatment platforms in preclinical studies. This preclinical model also compliments the ongoing phase 2 trial of pralatrexate in relapsed or refractory CTCL. Further in vivo studies to evaluate synergy of promising new agents in this novel mouse model of SS have begun and will be reported. Learn more: ashnfex/ash/2011/webprogram/Paper39753.html

Pralatrexate Has Potent Activity Against Multiple Myeloma In Vitro and In Vivo, and Activity Correlates with Tumor RFC-1 and DHFR Expression Poster Abstract 1831: Saturday, December 10, 2011, 5:30PMAuthors: Michael Mangone, AB and Hearn J. Cho, MD, PhD, NYU Cancer InstituteMultiple myeloma (MM) is the second most common hematologic malignancy. Although there are effective new agents that can induce remission, relapse is inevitable and the disease is currently incurable. Progress in the treatment of this disease demands development of novel therapeutics and identification of functional biomarkers that may be used to distinguish tumors that are susceptible to specific targeted agents, creating a "personalized" therapeutic strategy for individual patients. We investigated these principles with anti-folates, which are not commonly used in MM but have demonstrated activity in this disease. Pralatrexate (PDX, 10-propargyl 10-deazaaminopterin) is a folate analogue that was rationally designed to have high affinity for Reduced Folate Carrier (RFC)-1, an oncofetal protein expressed in many cancers that actively transports folates into cells. PDX induced dose-dependent apoptotic cell death in a subset of human myeloma cell lines (HMCL) and CD138+ MM cells isolated from a clinical specimen. In sensitive cell lines, PDX exhibited 10-fold greater potency compared to the structurally related drug methotrexate (MTX). PDX induced dose-dependent, intrinsic apoptosis in sensitive HMCLs, characterized by cleavage of caspase-3 and -9 and accompanied by the loss of full-length Mcl-1, a Bcl-2 family protein that plays a critical role in drug-induced apoptosis in MM. Furthermore, the activity of PDX is not abrogated by the presence of exogenous interleukin-6 or by co-culture with HS-5 bone marrow stromal cells, both of which exert powerful survival effects on MM cells and can antagonize apoptosis in response to some cytotoxic chemotherapy drugs. Sensitivity to PDX-induced apoptosis correlated with higher relative levels of RFC-1 mRNA in sensitive compared to resistant HMCL. Resistant HMCL also exhibited a dose-dependent up-regulation of dihydrofolate reductase (DHFR) protein, a primary molecular target for anti-folates, in response to PDX exposure, whereas sensitive HMCL did not. These changes in functional folate metabolism biomarkers, high baseline RFC-1 expression and upregulation of DHFR in response to PDX, appeared to be mutually exclusive to sensitive or resistant HMCL, respectively. Importantly, PDX was also effective against sensitive HMCL in vivo in a novel mouse xenograft model. NOD/Shi-scid/IL-2R??null (NOG) mice were inoculated with MM.1s HMCL stably transduced to express both GFP and luciferase (GFP-luc). GFP-luc MM.1s cells engrafted into the long bones, pelvis, and vertebral column of NOG mice within 4-7 days after injection of cells, as assessed by in vivo bioluminescent imaging. Treatment with PDX resulted in a significant reduction in tumor burden after two doses. These results demonstrate that PDX has potent anti-myeloma activity in vitro and in vivo, and that RFC-1 expression and DHFR upregulation are robust functional biomarkers that may identify patients who are likely to benefit from PDX therapy. These data support further exploration of PDX therapy in clinical trials for MM and investigation of folate metabolism biomarkers as indices for treatment with this class of drugs. Improved anti-folates such as PDX are a promising class of agents that may be a valuable addition to the arsenal against MM. Learn more: ashnfex/ash/2011/webprogram/Paper43383.html

Control of RAG Cleavage Activity Contributes to Maintaining Genome Stability During V(D)J Recombination Poster Abstract 2416: Sunday, December 11, 2011, 6:00PMAuthors: Susannah Hewitt, PhD and Jane Skok, PhD, NYU Cancer InstituteAcute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL) results from malignancy of lymphoid progenitor cells and affects both adults and children. It is the most common childhood cancer and despite advances in treatment that now result in above 80% cure rates for children, considerable problems remain with current therapies. These include low cure rates in children with high-risk ALL, the complexity and toxic effects of current treatments and the stubbornly poor prognosis of adults with ALL (with a less than 40% long-term survival rate). ALL can be initiated by errors in V(D)J recombination, a process which creates multiple combinations of receptor genes in B and T lymphocytes in order to target foreign pathogens. During recombination, DNA double strand breaks are introduced at the borders of two selected gene segments and repair creates a new gene combination. Chromosomal translocations can occur both by mis-targeting of the RAG recombinase proteins at cryptic recombination signal sequences, as well as illegitimate repair with a DNA break generated by alternative cellular processes. Our work has unveiled a remarkable and previously unknown control step which acts during V(D)J recombination to protect genome stability. We demonstrated that the key DNA damage response factor and serine/threonine kinase ATM (ataxia telangiectasia mutated), prevents aberrant cleavage during V(D)J recombination. In wild-type cells only one of the two homologous Ig alleles is normally cleaved at a time, whereas in ATM deficient cells both Ig alleles can be cleaved simultaneously and chromosomal aberrations are detected on two Ig alleles (Hewitt et al., Nature Immunology 2009). Our recent work has been directed at understanding how ATM and the RAG recombinase (RAG1 and RAG2 proteins) cooperate to implement allelic control of V(D)J recombination. We hypothesized that ATM may act to control RAG cleavage, either directly or indirectly. To test this, we investigated developing B cells from coreRAG1 or coreRAG2 mice; these are the shortest active forms of the proteins but lack regulatory domains. We assessed mono- versus biallelic cleavage using ??H2AX to indicate repair foci and as a read-out for DNA double strand breaks. In pre-B cells from coreRAG1 mice, ??H2AX foci were predominantly colocalized with only one Igk allele per cell, which indicates monoallelic cleavage. In contrast, biallelic colocalization was highly significant in coreRAG2 expressing pre-B cells. We have analyzed RAG2 mutants to precisely identify the protein motifs that regulate cleavage. These were introduced into Rag2-deficient pre-B cell lines by retroviral infection. Expression of a coreRAG2 construct in these cells recapitulated the biallelic cleavage seen in ex-vivo isolated pre-B cells. We found that mutation of putative serine/threonine phosphorylation motifs also resulted in significant biallelic colocalization of ??H2AX with Igk alleles. This suggests that RAG2 performs a similar function to ATM in restricting simultaneous RAG cleavage on the antigen receptor loci and may indeed cooperate with serine/threonine kinases. These data provide a mechanistic basis for the similarities in chromosomal abnormalities between Atm-/- and coreRag2/p53-/- lymphomas and will contribute to our understanding of why recurrent chromosomal translocations and lymphoid cancers arise in ATM-deficient mice and humans. Learn more: ashnfex/ash/2011/webprogram/Paper41852.html

Source: NYU Langone Medical Center

©2017 -